The exact processes of soot formation and growth are yet to be understood. To understand the physics and chemistry of soot one would need to follow soot from its inception from gaseous species to its evolution due to complex interaction with gas and organic & inorganic aerosols in the atmosphere.
Radiation is one of the most important mode of heat transfer that is critical for several domains - from combustion to remote sensing to climate science. Accurate modeling of radiative transfer, however, is very complex and computationally very intensive, even for relatively simple configurations.
Combustion involves complex interactions of fluid dynamics, multiphase flows, chemical reactions, and heat transfer. Our understanding of combustion is still incomplete because of the complexity of each of these processes and their interactions.
In the context of global climate change, combustion-generated pollution, particularly soot or black carbon, is a major concern. Unfortunately our understanding of evolution of combustion-generated soot in the atmosphere is still lacking.